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What is Paranoia – Symptoms, Treatment, Causes

What is Paranoia - Symptoms, Treatment, Causes

Paranoia is a form of mental health issue which is a problem associated with certain mental thoughts. In this, the patient becomes extraordinarily suspicious of other people and loses faith in them. A person with paranoia feels as if someone will catch him as soon as he comes out. He gets fears any kind of damage to his body without any reason. Cases of paranoia have also been seen in people with dementia and in those who are addicted. Paranoia mental thoughts can also be a symptom of some other health problem.

Paranoia is a mental disorder in which a person behaves in an unusual way. In this, the person stops trusting his relatives and a feeling of doubt arises in his mind towards them. He feels that everyone wants to kill him or cause physical harm. Due to such thoughts coming into the mind of the patient, he stops leaving the house and starts living separately.

Also check out: Post-traumatic stress disorder- Symptoms, causes, treatment.

There are many mental and physical diseases that can cause paranoia. Apart from this, there are some other conditions, which can cause this. This mainly includes drug addiction head injuries etc. By examining the paranoia, its internal causes are found out. Once the condition causing this is detected, the treatment is started accordingly. Its treatment mainly includes psychotherapy and some special medicines.

It is very important to get the paranoia treated as soon as possible. If not treated on time, a person may have to face many permanent problems mentally and physically. This condition can also lead to relationship breakdown and job loss.


Almost everyone experiences symptoms of paranoia at some point in their life. But in paranoia disease its symptoms are constant. The symptoms of paranoia vary according to their severity and can affect many aspects of life. Its symptoms include the following –

  • untrustworthy
  • not understanding or trusting a person
  • Being afraid for no reason and feeling persecuted
  • to be isolated and not to talk to anyone
  • inability to have proper relationships with others

Also check out: OCD – Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
In this condition, the person is not able to talk normally with anyone, due to which even close relationships start souring. A person suffering from paranoia feels that people are conspiring against him and want to harm him physically and mentally. People suffering from this also feel that people want to snatch or steal something from him. In such a situation, the person is not able to work with other people and starts living separately.

Sudden changes in behaviour towards other people may indicate this disease. People with paranoia may also have symptoms associated with problems such as hallucinations and delusions.


The exact causes of paranoia diseases are not yet known. According to some researchers, for people who already have problems related to mental conditions, certain environmental factors can cause symptoms of paranoia. There are a few conditions that can cause paranoia –

  • insomnia
  • extreme mental or physical stress
  • head injury
  • stand apart
  • starting and stopping a drug frequently
  • Abruptly giving up alcohol or any other intoxicant
  • Exposure to certain types of chemicals or toxic substances (such as pesticides, gasoline, and paints, etc.)
  • a major life change (such as the sudden death of a loved one or the victim of a crime)

Also check out: Hypertension : Causes and symptoms
There are also some diseases related to the brain, which increase the risk of paranoia –

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • epilepsy
  • seizure
  • tumor in the brain
  • Huntington disease
  • When does the risk of getting paranoia increase?

According to some research, the risk of paranoia has been seen in older or older people. This is because older people have more problems like hallucinations and delusions. Due to this, symptoms of paranoia are also seen in them due to their hearing loss and vision loss. For example, paranoia occurs in older people after having a poor vision or hearing loss.


In most cases, prevention of paranoia is not possible. However, there are few treatment procedures available for people who have symptoms of paranoia. With the help of these treatment procedures, one can help in dealing with the condition. Apart from this, eating a healthy diet, getting proper exercise in the morning, and improving lifestyle improve mental health and reduce the risk of getting such diseases.

Testing & Diagnosis of Paranoia

The doctor will conduct a physical examination of the patient, with the help of which the underlying cause of paranoia is detected. When the disease-causing paranoia is diagnosed, then some other tests can be done accordingly, so that its cause can also be found out.

If the paranoia is related to a mental problem, the doctor will refer the patient to a psychiatrist or psychologist. These specialist doctors will do some special psychological tests so that the mental state of the patient can be detected.

People with paranoia are also screened for the following diseases –

  • bipolar disorder
  • anxiety disorder
  • depression


Paranoia is treated according to its severity and the underlying disease causing it. Treatment for paranoia includes a variety of medications and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy includes the following –

  • acknowledging the patient’s weakness
  • raise their self-esteem
  • try to increase their confidence in other people

In this therapy, the patient’s relatives are also given some training, during which they are explained how to positively support the patient’s feelings. Psychotherapy also improves the patient’s conditions such as meeting and talking to other people. Some doctors also prescribe anti-anxiety drugs for the patient, with the help of which problems like anxiety and fear are cured. Apart from this, some special antipsychotic drugs may also be given, which help in reducing the symptoms.

A person with paranoid schizophrenia has to be given special types of drugs because those patients are unable to perceive reality. Antipsychotic drugs are mainly included in their initial treatment. Later anti-anxiety and antidepressant drugs are also started.

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