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What are the different types of cancer?

Hundreds of billions of cells make up our body. We can only see the cells under a microscope since they are so little.

Our body’ tissues and organs are made up of cells that are grouped together. They have a lot in common. However, because body organs perform quite varied functions, they differ in various respects. Nerves and muscles, for example, perform various functions, hence their cells have different architectures.

There are over 200 different varieties of cancer, and we may categorise them based on where they begin in the body, such as breast cancer or lung cancer.

We can also categorise cancers based on the sort of cell that they begin in. There are five major categories. These are the following:

Carcinoma starts in the skin or in the tissues that line or cover internal organs. Adenocarcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and transitional cell carcinoma are some of the subtypes.

Sarcoma is cancer that starts in the connective or supporting tissues of the body, such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, and blood vessels.

Leukaemia is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells. It begins in the bone marrow and other organs that produce blood cells.

Lymphoma and myeloma are malignancies that start in immune system cells. Go to a vocabulary item and click on it.

Malignancies of the brain and spinal cord are known as central nervous system cancers.

Also check out: How to prevent cancer? 10 ways to reduce risks of Cancer


Carcinomas begin in epithelial tissues and progress to other tissues. These are the tissues:

Cover the outside of the body, such as the skin, and line all inside organs, such as the digestive system’s organs. Line the body cavities, such as the inside of the chest cavity and the stomach cavity, with a vocabulary item.

The most prevalent type of cancer is carcinoma. 

Epithelial cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and they can grow into a variety of cancers. These are some of them:

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that affects the skin.

adenocarcinoma carcinoma of the transitional cell basal cell carcinoma is a type of cancer in which the cells of

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that affects the skin.

Squamous cell cancer begins in the cells of the squamous epidermis. These are flat, surface-covering cells that can be found in places including the skin, the lining of the throat, and the food pipe (oesophagus).


Adenocarcinomas begin in adenomatous cells, which are glandular cells. Fluids are produced by glandular cells to keep tissues wet.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that Cells that may stretch as an organ expands are known as transitional cells. Transitional epithelial tissues are made up of them. The bladder lining is one such example. Transitional cell carcinomas are cancers that begin in these cells.

Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer.

The deepest layer of skin cells is lined by basal cells. Basal cell carcinomas are cancers that begin in these cells.


Sarcomas begin in the connective tissues of the body. These are the body’s supporting tissues. The bones, cartilage, tendons, and fibrous tissue that support organs are all examples of connective tissues.

Carcinomas are far more prevalent than sarcomas. There are two distinct types:

Sarcomas of the bone and soft tissue

These malignancies account for fewer than 1 per cent of all cancers diagnosed each year.

Sarcomas of the bones

Bone sarcomas develop from bone cells.

Sarcomas of the soft tissues

The most frequent types of soft tissue sarcomas begin in cartilage or muscle.


Chondrosarcoma is a type of cartilage cancer.


Cancer of muscle cells is called rhabdomyosarcoma or leiomyosarcoma.

Leukaemias are malignancies of the white blood cells.

Leukaemia is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells. The marrow of the bone Too many white blood cells is produced when you open a vocabulary item. Because the blood cells are not fully created, they do not function correctly. The blood becomes clogged with aberrant cells.

Leukaemia is a rare disease. They account for barely three out of every hundred cancer cases (3 per cent). They are, nonetheless, the most prevalent cancer in youngsters.

Lymphoma and myeloma are cancers of the lymphatic system.

Lymphoma and myeloma are two more malignancies that affect the lymphatic system. Activate a vocabulary item. The lymphatic system is a collection of tubes and glands that filters bodily fluid and fights infection.

Also check out: What Are the Types of Leukaemia?


Lymphoma is cancer that starts in the lymph glands or cells of the lymphatic system. Open a glossary item The lymphatic system runs all through the body so lymphoma can start just about anywhere.

It happens because some of the lymphatic system white blood cells (lymphocytes) start to divide in an abnormal way. And don’t die as they should. These cells start to divide before they become fully grown (mature) so they can’t fight infection.

The aberrant cells begin to gather in lymph nodes and other locations such as the bone marrow and spleen. Tumours can form as a result of this.

In the United Kingdom, lymphomas account for roughly 5 out of every 100 cancer cases (5 per cent).

Also check out: What is the difference between leukemia and lymphoma?


Myeloma is cancer that begins in the plasma cells of the body. The bone marrow produces plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell. Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are produced by them to aid in the battle against infection.

Plasma cells might develop abnormalities and grow uncontrollably. They create an antibody that isn’t effective in fighting illness.

Cancers of the brain and spinal cord

Cancer can begin in the brain or spinal cord cells. The brain sends electrical messages along nerve fibres to govern the body. The spinal cord, which also transports messages from the body to the brain, is made up of fibres that run out of the brain and link together.

The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. Neurones are billions of nerve cells that make up the brain. It also contains glial cells, which are special connective tissue cells that assist nerve cells.

Glial cells are the most prevalent source of brain tumours. Glioma is the medical term for this type of tumour. Some tumours that begin in the brain or spinal cord are benign (noncancerous) and grow slowly. Others are malignant and have a proclivity for growing and spreading.

Feature Image Credits: Scientific American.Com

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